美国感染病学会(IDSA,Infectious Diseases Society of America) 感染科 2000-04-01
The importance of initial amphotericin-B-based combination induction therapy for both non-HIV and HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is emphasised. Amphotericin-B formulation, second drug (fluconazole or flucytosine), and duration of induction may vary. Consolidation and maintenance treatment is with fluconazole. The aggressive management of raised intracranial pressure is advocated by means of daily lumbar punctures, based on a retrospective analysis of the last large U.S. trial.
世界卫生组织(WHO,The World Health Organization) 感染科 2007-01-01
Cholera is an acute enteric infection caused by the ingestion of bacterium Vibrio cholerae present in faecally contaminated water or food. Primarily linked to insufficient access to safe water and proper sanitation, its impact can be even more dramatic in areas where basic environmental infrastructures are disrupted or have been destroyed. Countries facing complex emergencies are particularly vulnerable to cholera outbreaks. Massive displacement of IDPs or refugees to overcrowded settings, where the provision of potable water and sanitation is challenging, constitutes also a risk factor. In consequence, it is of paramount importance to be able to rely on accurate surveillance data to monitor the evolution of the outbreak and to put in place adequate intervention measures Coordination of the different sectors involved is essential, and WHO calls for the cooperation of all to limit the effect of cholera on populations.
世界卫生组织(WHO,The World Health Organization) 感染科 2004-01-01
Two recent advances in managing diarrhoeal disease – newly formulated oral rehydrationsalts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salt, and success in using zincsup plementation – can drastically reduce the number of child deaths. The new methods,used in addition to prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, will reduce the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lower their incidence. Families and communities are key to achieving the goals set for managing the disease by making the new recommendations routine practice in the home and health facility.
美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 感染科 1999-01-01
Cholera and dysentery have afflicted humankind for centuries. The epidemics they cause have affected the outcome of wars and the fates of countries. In much of the world, epidemic cholera and dysentery are uncommon, but during the past decade these two diseases have re-emerged as causes of significant morbidity and mortality in many developing countries.
美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 感染科 1992-03-01
UNTIL recently, cholera has been rare in the Americas. However, epidemic cholera appeared in Peru in January 1991 and spread rapidly through Latin America. In the first year of this epidemic, 17 cases of cholera that were associated with travel to Latin America were reported in the United States. More cases are likely to be seen. Although no spread from these imported cases has occurred, it is possible that some areas of the United States with poor sanitary conditions may be at risk for limited continued transmission of cholera. This article reviews the methods for recognitiondiagnosis, and treatment of cholera.